Indexes are similar to scales except multiple indicators of a variable are combined into a single Scaling techniques. Internal validation checks the relation between the individual measures included in the scale, and the composite scale itself.
The rating is scaled by summing all responses until the first negative response in the list. Under it the respondent can express his attitude by making a choice between two objects, say between a new flavour of soft drink and an established Scaling techniques of drink.
The results are reduced to a single score on a scale. The results obtained from their use compare favourably with alternative methods.
Statements are listed in order of importance. They require less time, are interesting to use and have a wide range of applications.
Comparative and non comparative scaling[ edit ] With comparative scalingthe items are directly compared with each other example: In comparative scaling, the respondent is asked to compare one brand or product against another.
Any scales with insufficient Alphas should be dropped and the process repeated from Step 3. Typologies are very useful analytical tools and can be easily used as independent variablesalthough since they are not unidimensional it is difficult to use them as a dependent variable. Conversely they may wish to know which are the most important factors acting to prevent the widespread adoption of a product.
The respondents under this method directly compare two or more objects and make choices among them. Comparative scales Paired comparison2: What types of statistical analysis would be useful? Level of measurement The type of information collected can influence scale construction.
Each attribute requires a scale with bipolar terminal labels. He almost never gets involved in friction with fellow workers. The error of leniency occurs when certain respondents are either easy raters or hard raters. For example, if a conceptually important item only cross loads on a component to be dropped, it is good to keep it for the next round.
There is no specific rule whether to use a two-points scale, three-points scale or scale with still more points. A typology is similar to an index except the variable is measured at the nominal level. Constant sum scale — a respondent is given a constant sum of money, script, credits, or points and asked to allocate these to various items example: Thurstone scale — This is a scaling technique that incorporates the intensity structure among indicators.
External validation checks the relation between the composite scale and other indicators of the variable, indicators not included in the scale. Scale evaluation[ edit ] Scales should be tested for reliabilitygeneralizability, and validity.
These components and their items are candidates to drop. They are convergent validitydiscriminant validityand nomological validity Campbell and Fiske, ; Krus and Ney, Run the Alpha program asking for the Alphas if each item is dropped.
Look at the candidates to drop and the components to be dropped. These statements are ordered progressively in terms of more or less of some property. This form is relatively difficult to develop and the statements may not say exactly what the respondent would like to express.
Reliability is the extent to which a scale will produce consistent results. Begin by generating at least ten items to represent each of the scales. Method of paired comparisons:The Measurement & Scaling Technique helps us to: explain the concepts of measurement and scaling, discuss four levels of measurement scales, classify and discuss different scaling techniques, and select an appropriate attitude measurement scale for our research problem.
Scaling Techniques Definition: Scaling is the process of generating the continuum, a continuous sequence of values, upon which the measured objects are placed. In Marketing Research, several scaling techniques are employed to study the relationship between the objects.
The most commonly used techniques can be classified as. Log and Tree Scaling Techniques Daniel Cassens Purdue University Buying and selling logs and standing trees based on an estimate of the number of board feet they contain is an everyday practice in the lumber industry.
However, it can also be a very confusing practice.
There are a. Chapter 3: Levels Of Measurement And Scaling. Chapter Objectives Structure Of The Chapter Levels of measurement it is an important topic since the type of scale used in taking measurements directly impinges on the statistical techniques which can legitimately be used in the analysis.
This scaling technique gives the marketing researcher. SCALING TECHNIQUES Learning Objectives Concept of Measurement and Scaling Different Scales in Measurement and their properties Introduction of different type of scaling Techniques Comparative, non comparative Continuous,Special Rating scales Mathematically derived scales.
In the social sciences, scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits. For example, a scaling technique might involve estimating individuals' levels of extraversion, or the perceived quality of products.Download