It was one of only a few curves beyond the straight line and the conic sections known in antiquity. The second book is a mathematical tour de force unmatched in antiquity and rarely equaled since.

Nevertheless, his mathematical work was not continued or developed, as far as is known, in any important way in ancient times, despite his hope expressed in Method that its publication would enable others to make new discoveries.

Thus, several meritorious works by medieval Islamic mathematicians were inspired by their study of Archimedes. The plane sections of a sphere are called spheric sections.

Archimedes emphasizes that, though useful as a heuristic method, this procedure does not constitute a rigorous proof. The line of centers is perpendicular to the radical plane at A. Much of that book, however, is undoubtedly not authentic, consisting as it does of inept later additions or reworkings, and it seems likely that the basic principle of the law of the lever and—possibly—the concept of the centre of gravity were established on a mathematical basis by scholars earlier than Archimedes.

His contribution was rather to extend those concepts to conic sections. Without the background of the rediscovered ancient mathematicians, among whom Archimedes was paramount, the development of mathematics in Europe in the century between and is inconceivable.

The hemisphere is conjectured to be the optimal least area isometric filling of the Riemannian circle. On Floating Bodies in two books survives only partly in Greek, the rest in medieval Latin translation from the Greek.

Surprising though it is to find those metaphysical speculations in the work of a practicing astronomer, there is good reason to believe that their attribution to Archimedes is correct.

Archimedes published his works in the form of correspondence with the principal mathematicians of his time, including the Alexandrian scholars Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene.

The same freedom from conventional ways of thinking is apparent in the arithmetical field in Sand-Reckoner, which shows a deep understanding of the nature of the numerical system. That holds particularly in the determination of the volumes of solids of revolution, but his influence is also evident in the determination of centres of gravity and in geometric construction problems.

The work is also of interest because it gives the most detailed surviving description of the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos c. Its object is to remedy the inadequacies of the Greek numerical notation system by showing how to express a huge number—the number of grains of sand that it would take to fill the whole of the universe.

The antipodal quotient of the sphere is the surface called the real projective planewhich can also be thought of as the northern hemisphere with antipodal points of the equator identified. Circles on the sphere that are parallel to the equator are lines of latitude. If a particular point on a sphere is arbitrarily designated as its north pole, then the corresponding antipodal point is called the south pole, and the equator is the great circle that is equidistant to them.

Hemisphere[ edit ] Any plane that includes the center of a sphere divides it into two equal hemispheres. On the Equilibrium of Planes or Centres of Gravity of Planes; in two books is mainly concerned with establishing the centres of gravity of various rectilinear plane figures and segments of the parabola and the paraboloid.

Moreover, a sphere orthogonal to any two spheres of a pencil of spheres is orthogonal to all of them and its center lies in the radical plane of the pencil.

If the spheres intersect in an imaginary circle, all the spheres of the pencil also pass through this imaginary circle but as ordinary spheres they are disjoint have no real points in common. In this definition a sphere is allowed to be a plane infinite radius, center at infinity and if both the original spheres are planes then all the spheres of the pencil are planes, otherwise there is only one plane the radical plane in the pencil.

If the spheres intersect in a point A, all the spheres in the pencil are tangent at A and the radical plane is the common tangent plane of all these spheres.On the surface of the sphere, heat exchange with the surrounding medium takes place according to Newton's law.

The ambient temperature varies according to the law $\mu(t)$.

Help to solve the problem of mathematical physics. A sphere has one continuous surface. Perfect spheres have smooth surfaces where every point is the same distance from the centre. In real life, spherical objects can be rough or bumpy. Of all the shapes, a sphere has the smallest surface area for a volume.

Or put another way it can contain the greatest volume for a fixed surface area. Example: if you blow up a balloon it naturally forms a sphere because it is trying to hold as much air as possible with as small a surface as possible. ON THE UNIVERSAL TENDENCY TO DEBASEMENT IN THE SPHERE OF LOVE (CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LOVE II) Sigmund Freud If the practising psycho-analyst asks himself on.

Mathematics is the Sphere of Life All is Numbers, is still echoing from the walls of the White City, when once the great Pythagoras said it on an early sunny morning to his disciples.

Archimedes, (born c.

bce, Syracuse, Sicily [Italy]—died / bce, Syracuse), the most-famous mathematician and inventor in ancient ultimedescente.comedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing ultimedescente.com is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a.

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